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Offline เป้ (pronsatit)

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จากเว็บนี้นะครับ
http://www.biocoal.org/3.html

น่าสนใจมากจึงนำมาให้ชมกันครับ
ow-cost retort kiln  called  "adam-retort"
or
ICPS    (Improved Charcoal Production System)

 ;) :D
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The ICPS is a modern, innovative and environmentally friendly system to produce charcoal from biomass.
(low-cost retort kiln)
photo: AUROVILLE/ INDIA/ Earth Building Unit

Did You know:
CHARCOAL from RETORT SYSTEMS can often serve as a replacement for fossil fuels,
thereby having a neutral effect on CO? exchanges.
This makes a significant positive contribution to the preservation of our environment!

Advantages:

1) High economy and better efficiency approx. 35% to 45% (Instead of about 18% efficiency compared to the traditional systems; calculated from dry weight).

2) Recycling and clean combustion of the pyrolysis gas during the 2nd phase of operation (retort-system) results in a low-emission of carbon monoxides during the charcoal production! The effective carbonization of the biomass takes only 10 hours.
A retort system reduces the emission of harmful volatiles into the atmosphere to about up to 75%! (Compared to a traditional earth-mount kiln).

3) Low investment costs (was about 300 Euro in Kenya in 2004, but now with raising steel prices it will be ~500Euro...) and a simple construction with locally available materials.

4) About 3m3 of biomass (corresponding to approx. 600kg to 900kg wood, coconut shells, compacted saw-dust briquettes, etc., dry weight, water not counted, or ~1-1,5 tons of wet wood) can be converted to up to 350kg of charcoal per batch. Per week about 3 batches of biomass can be cabonized which is corresponding to about 1,05 tons of charcoal per week and unit.

5) An effective 30 hour production cycle (batch) and a simple operation of the plant result in an increased income for its operators. The right system to be used at forest projects, sustainable energy-wood plantations and charcoal makers.

6) Only waste wood or residual biomass needs to be burnt (~50kg) in a separate fire box to dry and heat the wood and initiate the carbonization process during the 1st phase.

7) With an extended version the famous "white charcoal" should be possible to be produced? This is an adapted japanese technology to produce high quality and strong charcoal. Also the production of "wood vinegar" is possible during the 1st phase of operation.
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perspective drawing of the "adam-retort"

The issue of the introduction of environmentally friendlier procedures for charcoal production in countries such as Africa and South America is one that is badly in need of our attention.

Currently Kenya uses 2 million tons of charcoal for household purposes per year. Zambia?s situation is comparable to Kenya?s, using approximately 1 million tons of charcoal per year. Many other third world countries are showing similar figures as well.

The charcoal is mainly manufactured with an earth-mount-technology, originally used in the Middle Ages. To create 10kg to 15kg charcoal using this method, about 100 kg of wood is needed. Here, the efficiency ratio is only 10%-15%.

There is, however, an alternative method available. Known as ?retort-technology,? this is the method used in Europe to manufacture charcoal on an industrial level.

These industrial plants are unfortunately impracticable in the rural areas of the target countries, because the investment and maintenance costs of the process are too high.

After much consideration, as well as experience with the building of a bio-coal plant in Burundi/East Africa, we have succeeded in developing a concept for innovative retort-kilns built with locally available materials. We have confidence that the retort-kiln can be accepted by the population and be widely spread. The retort-kiln was developed according to the principles of ?intermediate? or ?appropriate? technology

In 2004 in India/AUROVILLE the development of the model was furthered ? now being built in Kenya, we can see how the low-cost retort-kilns are helping aid a more environmentally friendly method of charcoal production.

The plant is called ICPS (Improved Charcoal Production System) or ?adam-retort? and has the following advantages:

* Economical, with an efficiency of approx. 35% to 45% instead of about 18% efficiency compared to the traditional systems (calculated from dry weight of wood).

* Recycling and clean combustion of the pyrolysis gas during the 2nd phase of operation (?retort-system?) results in a low-emission of carbon monoxides during the charcoal production. The effective carbonisation of the biomass takes only about 10 hours.

* Low investment costs (about ~500 Euros for materials and work) and a simple construction with locally available materials.

* A volume of approx. 3m? of biomass (corresponding to approx. 600 to 900kg wood, coconut shells, etc., dry weight- water not counted) can be converted to up to ~350kg of charcoal.

* An effective 24-30 hour production cycle (known as a ?batch?) and a simple operation of the plant result in an increased income for its operators. The right system to be used in rural areas or semi-industrial production like at forest projects, energy-wood plantations and charcoal makers.

* Only waste and residual biomass needs to be burnt (~50kg) in a separate fire box to dry and heat the wood and initiate the carbonisation process during the 1st phase.

* The concept of the ICPS / ?adam-retort? is that the retort works in 2 stages ? the first and the second phase. In the first phase the wood in the retort chamber is dried by hot flue gases and the carbonisation is initiated. The hot flue gases are produced with cheap waste wood in an external fire chamber. By waste wood we understand branches, crust, charcoal dust and other residual products from agricultural processes, such as coffee husks. About 50 kg of waste wood is burned per batch.

During traditional charcoal production a part of the ?good? wood must be burned down in order to carbonise the rest of the wood.

As soon as the water in the wood has evaporated, the smoke is sufficiently hot and the first inflammable wood gases appear, the smoke is now rerouted and burnt in the hot fire chamber, reducing pollution. This additional energy is used to heat up the wood chamber and to further accelerate carbonisation during this second phase

In the traditional carbonisation process, the smoke clouds remain in the air for 4 ? 14 days. The smoke created by the ?adam-retort? carbonises within approximately 10 hours with some of the smoke being burnt off in a fire box. If the carbonisation begins in the morning, the retort-kiln can be closed by the evening. The charcoal cools overnight by a special cooling method. By the next morning, the charcoal is ready to use.

The plant can be built for approximately ~500 Euro in countries with low labour costs.

About 3m? volume, or 600kg-900 kg wood (dry weight) can be loaded, from which 200kg-350 kg of charcoal can be created.

Our calculations in Kenya mean the initial investment costs can be paid back in about three months, from the sales of the charcoal.

The ?adam-retort? can be built in approximately one week by a ?Retort-Team? consisting of 1 trained bricklayers and 1 - 2 assistants. The chamber of the retort kiln is build from simple bricks or even unburned earth blocs, also hollow bricks are very suitable.
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Photo: PHASE-II burning of wood gases (methane) and recycling of the heat gained to push carbonization

It makes sense to introduce the ?adam-retort? at forest projects or other areas which cultivate wood energy plantations. The farmers are more motivated to plant energy trees because the wood gets a higher economic value because of an about doubled recovery rate for the charcoal! Its also recommended to use the ?adam-retort? as well in areas where sustainable trees exist. This is the case in many areas of East- and South Africa where the Lelechwa wood grows. The local farmers call these shrubs ?weeds,? partly because after cutting they grow back with renewed vigour. Their hard wood creates an excellent charcoal. The burning of coconut shells to create charcoal is also a possibility.

A ~75% reduction of environmental damage has been recorded by an English retort manufacturer by burning the methane gases. Wood consumption is reduced by over half, while maintaining the amount of charcoal produced. With the retort-technique charcoal of a high quality is obtained ? one extra suggestion has been to market it to the medical sector.

We do not advise the introduction of charcoal; it is better to burn wood directly. In many countries, however, charcoal use is socially determined, or traditional, as regards specific meals prepared. In areas where this kind of high charcoal consumption takes place, it is more appropriate to produce it with more efficient, more modern and environmentally friendlier methods, such as the ?adam-retort.?
- - -

Also information on the ICPS in other languages is available on request: German, French, Spanish and Portuguese.
( scda2@ymail.com ) NEW e-mail  since July 2009 !
update: 1.Dec..2009

Check the video about the "adam-retort" under:

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=omvLK-rksRA

or search under www.youtube.com with keywords "charcoal, retort".

Partly you can find this information also under:           http://www.bioenergylists.org/en/adamretort

Some other reference (16 pages, check page 9 & 6):
http://www.gtz.de/de/dokumente/gtz2008-en-charcoal-in-africa.pdf

The World Bank, Washington, 2008 / LOW-CARBON ENERGY PROJECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT IN
SUB-SAHARAN AFRICA / WOODFUEL FOR HOUSEHOLDS / page 145:
http://wbcarbonfinance.org/docs/Main_Report_Low_Carbon_Energy_projects_for_Development_of_Sub_Saharan_Africa_8-18-08.pdf

REFERENCES ON THE "adam-retort".

Phone call with Mr. Luggy from South Germany: He is a farmer and he is doing carbonization occasionaly when time allows. He is very satisfied because he can do charbonization now alone as a single person (traditional carbonization needs a team of persons). He also appreciates the he can complete carbonization in a day or two. He receives about 220kg per batch of charcoal from beech wood. He is not using insulating lids on the top of the wood chamber (which could increase the yield).
He is operating the retort since October 2006, Luggy, Bad Kohlgrub,
---
Phone call with Alex jun.: together with his father he is running a farm near the border to Angola. They modified the retort to be used with containers and they manage to do 5 batches per week and they are running 6 retorts. The retorts are loaded with 1 to 1,5 tons of wood and they get about 350kg (!) of charcoal per batch.
Alex, June 2008, Namibia,
---
Hallo Chris,
die Retorten laufen alle 3, aber sie sind nicht zur G?nze zufriedenstellend; die Risse im Mauerwerk und im Zement sind chronisch, die Temperaturverl?ufe sind gelegentlich ziemlich unstet, aber sie laufen.
Ich habe f?r die n?chsten Retorten eine Reihe von technischen Verbesserungsvorschl?gen, um die Retorten g?nstiger, besser, schneller und sauberer zu konzipieren. Und als n?chsten Schritt werde ich die Biester vergr?ssern.
Die n?chsten 2 Retorten werden im Februar am Alto U. im urwald gebaut, dann geht's am Unterlauf weiter...
Die Landesregierung von U. hat grosses Interesse an einem umfangreichen und finanzstarken Projekt angemeldet, dass noch 2009 beginnen soll; mit der Universit?t von U. bin ich derzeit in Verhandlungen ?ber gemeinsame Forschungsarbeiten zum Thema Holzkohlegewinnung.
Die Vorgehensweise zur sogenannten "White Charcoal" koenntest Du mir mal bei Gelegenheit erlaeutern, wenn Dir danach ist.
Bis dann mal, Gruss
Manuel P. (Peru), <j.....@gmx.de>, Jan.2009.
---
Hello Adam,
Yes we set the kiln up. We normally carbonize coconut shells. We are planning on grinding the charcoal to powder then briquetting them, perhaps you can also give us some more ideas on that.Otherwise all's well it s only the lower plate on the floor of the kiln that gets worn out quite fast, we are already doing repairs on it.
Regards
David (Mombasa, Kenya, s...@yahoo.com, Jan. 2009)
- - -
Dear Chris,
We had made a kiln as you described and made a few
modifications for it and we had been
successful in getting very good charcoal.
Sitki Okay, (Turkey) <stk...@gmail.com> 14.July 2009
----
Dear Chris:
....... It has been busy for us here as well, concentrating on making the "Adam-Retort" work with available US materials and of course the English measurement system that we still use here. You may be happy to know that the "Adam-Retort" is getting very popular here and many people and organisations are interested in it.
We met with Tom M. last month, to explore some next technologies, and he sends his regards to you. He spoke very highly of your work, and has recommended the "Adam-Retort" to be built by us for a bamboo char project in S. We will of course let you know how that proceeds....
As you have seen, we are well on our way to building the first few "Adam-retorts" in the US. We now have 2 under construction .............
Concerning your "CCS-Lite" (Continuous Carbonization System Lite) I am wondering whether you were able to complete the drawings of the "CCS-Lite" in July as you mentioned. We have looked at several technologies, but none of them have worked out yet. It appears to us that the "CCS-lite" is the most viable technologies for the next generation of bio char producers here.

This means that the "Adam-Retort" is the only practical charcoal retort now available even in America. There is a very great and immediate need for a "CCS" unit at least as big as the CCS-Lite, and even larger,
Please let me know how you are doing, and what the future for CCS might be
Peter H., 8.July, <peter@k....com>

Salut Chris,
hip, hip, cette fois (2?me charche), la carbonisation a r?ussi! Le four a pas mal souffert (il est fendill? un peu partout), mais nous avons obtenu un charbon de bonne qualit?. Apparemment, tout le volume a carbonis? et nous devrions obtenir un rendement tr?s int?ressant. Le charbon est encore trop chaud pour ?tre manipul?, mais nous le p?serons d?s que possible. -Pierre/ Senegal-
(Dear Chris, This shot is ok! Every body here is amazed... So much charcoal in only 24 hours!) <p..@hpxx.net>
...- - -
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Coconut Char can be used as a household fuel, can be used for incense making, or pressed to a high quailty charcoal for shishas (tobacco water pipe from Arabia)......
Indios using the "adam-retort" in the Amazonas. (photo: M.Palacios)
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